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热带雨林漂流记(三)

来源:中国乐业-凤山世界地质公园 发布时间:2017-11-07

2.2.1.3银带虾脊兰calanthe argenteostriata c. z. tang et s. j. cheng

植株无明显的根状茎。假鳞茎粗短,近圆锥形,粗约15厘米,具2-3枚鞘和3—7枚在花期展开的叶。叶上面深绿色,有5-6条银灰色的条带,椭圆形或卵状披针形,长18-27厘米,宽5-11厘米,先端急尖,基部收狭为长约3-4厘米的柄,无毛或背面稍被短毛。花葶从叶丛中央抽出,长达60厘米,密被短毛,具3-4枚筒状鞘;总状花序长7-11厘米,具10余朵花;花苞片宽卵形,长约1.5厘米,先端急尖,背面被毛。花梗和子房黄绿色,长约3厘米;花张开;萼片和花瓣多少反折,黄绿色;中萼片椭圆形,长9毫米,宽4.5毫米,先端钝并具短芒,具5条脉,背面被短毛;侧萼片宽卵状椭圆形,长10毫米,宽55毫米,先端钝并具短芒,具5条脉,背面被短毛。花瓣近匙形或倒卵形,比萼片稍小,先端近截形并具短凸,3条脉,无毛;唇瓣白色,与整个蕊柱翅合生,比萼片长,基部具3列金黄色的小瘤状物, 3裂;侧裂片近斧头状,长和宽均7毫米,先端近圆形;中裂片深2裂;小裂片与侧裂片等大;距黄绿色,细圆筒形,长1.5-1.9厘米,向末端变狭,外面疏被短毛;蕊柱白色,长约5毫米;蕊喙2裂,轭形;药帽白色、前端收狭,先端喙状;花粉团狭倒卵球形或狭棒状,近等大,长约2毫米,具短的花粉团柄,粘盘近方形。

2.2.1.4贵州琼楠beilschmiedia kweichowensis cheng

樟科常绿乔木,树形挺拔,树干直,叶色浓绿有光泽,为优质绿化与材用植物。

2.2.1.5鹿角栲castanopsis lamontii hance

常绿乔木,高25米。叶厚革质,长椭圆形或卵状披针形,基部宽楔形至近圆形,不对称,全缘或顶端有数个浅锯齿,叶柄长1.5-2.5厘米。总苞近球形,不端正,连刺直径3-4厘米,壁厚,苞刺粗壮,三角状锥形,长短不-,长的呈鹿角状,长达1.3厘米,下部合生成刺轴,排列成连续或间断的4-6环。坚果2-3个,果脐与坚果基部几等大。果熟期9-10月。

常生于海拔400-2500米疏林中。我国贵州、广西、广东、湖南、福建、江西等省区均有分布。

  用途及功能:木材质优;果可生食;树皮含单宁13.26%,纯度55.57%

2.2.1.6赤苍藤erythropalum scandens bl.

藤本植物,5-10米高,光滑无毛。小枝有多少宿存的锐尖芽鳞在基部,带有腋生的卷须状物。叶柄3-10厘米;叶片卵形,长圆状卵形的,或三角状卵形,8-20 × 4-15 厘米,纸质到多少革质,基部钝,截形,或多少心形,通常盾形,先端渐尖;基出35脉,背面突出,正面凹陷。聚伞花序6-18厘米,多花;花序梗4-10 厘米花梗丝状,花盘隆起。核果的椭圆形到倒卵球形,1.5-2.5 × 0.8-1.2 厘米,通过宿萼的树冠;开裂的的裂片最终下弯至显示出鲜红色内部表面。种子靛青蓝色,宽椭圆形。 花期、果期3月至9月。

lianas, 5-10 m tall, glabrous. branchlets with ± persistent acute bud scales at base, with axillary tendrils. petiole 3-10 cm; leaf blade ovate, oblong-ovate, or triangular-ovate, 8-20 × 4-15 cm, papery to ± leathery, base obtuse, truncate, or ± cordate, and usually peltate, apex acuminate; basal veins 3 or 5, abaxi-ally prominent, adaxially impressed. cymes 6-18 cm, many-flowered; peduncle 4-10 cm. pedicel filiform, 2-5 mm. calyx cupular, 5-dentate, ca. 1 mm. petals white, 1.5-2 mm. stamens with tufts of hairs on either side. disk elevated. drupe ellipsoid to obovoid, 1.5-2.5 × 0.8-1.2 cm, crowned by persistent calyx; dehisced segments eventually recurving to display bright red inner surface. seeds indigo blue, broadly ellipsoid. fl. and fr. mar-sep.

淤积和沿河岸森林;100-1500米。广东,广西,贵州南部,海南,西藏东南部,云南 [孟加拉国,文莱,不丹,柬埔寨,印度,印度尼西亚,老挝,马来西亚,缅甸,菲律宾,泰国,越南 ]。嫩枝为风味独特的野菜。

alluvial and riverine forests; 100-1500 m. guangdong, guangxi, s guizhou, hainan, se xizang, yunnan [bangladesh, brunei, bhutan, cambodia, india, indonesia, laos, malaysia, myanmar, philippines, thailand, vietnam]. the shoot is a folk delicious wild vegelable.

2.2.1.7绣毛络石trachelospermum jasminoides

木的藤本植物,茎褐色,藤长达10米,具皮孔;幼枝短柔毛,老时无毛。叶柄3-12毫米长;叶片卵形到倒卵形或狭椭圆形,2-10×1-4.5厘米,纸质,无毛或有时疏生短柔毛。圆锥状的聚伞花序,顶生或腋生;花序梗2-6厘米,被微柔毛到无毛。萼片狭长圆形,2-5毫米,开展或反折,外面被短柔毛,内部具缘毛,先端钝或锐尖。花冠黄白色,筒部膨大的在中部,5-10毫米,喉无毛或具柔毛面对雄蕊;倒卵形的裂片,现花冠筒部等长。雄蕊内藏于花冠筒,着生在花冠筒中部;子房无毛,蓇葖果线形,10-25厘米×3-10毫米,种子长圆形,1.5-2厘米,种缨1.5-4厘米。花期 38月,果期612月。染色体 2n = 20

lianas woody, to 10 m. stem brownish, lenticellate; young branchlets pubescent, glabrous when older. petiole 3-12 mm long; leaf blade ovate to obovate or narrowly elliptic, 2-10×1-4.5 cm, papery, glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent abaxially. cymes paniculate, terminal and axillary; peduncle 2-6 cm, puberulent to glabrous. sepals narrowly oblong, 2-5 mm, spreading or reflexed, pubescent outside, ciliate, apex obtuse or acute. corolla white, tube dilated at middle, 5-10 mm, throat glabrous or pilose facing stamens; lobes obovate, as long as tube. stamens included, inserted at middle of corolla tube; ovary glabrous. follicles linear, 10-25 cm×3-10 mm. seeds oblong, 1.5-2 cm, coma 1.5-4 cm. fl. mar-aug, fr. jun-dec. 2n = 20.

喜欢生长在向阳的森林、矮灌木丛边缘; 200-1300米安徽、福建、广东、广西、贵州、海南、河南、湖北、湖南、江苏、江西、山东、山西、四川、台湾、西藏、云南、浙江[日本,朝鲜,越南]

sunny edges of forests, brushwoods; 200-1300 m. anhui, fujian, guangdong, guangxi, guizhou, hainan, henan, hubei, hunan, jiangsu, jiangxi, shandong, shanxi, sichuan, taiwan, xizang, yunnan, zhejiang [japan, korea, vietnam].

从树皮获得强劲的韧皮部纤维可用于编制绳索、袋,并可造纸。 茎用于治疗风湿、外伤。 花可提取芳油香。全株有毒的!

a strong bast fiber obtained from the inner bark is used in making rope, sacks, and paper. the stem is used for the treatment of rheumatism and injury. the flowers yield perfumed oil. the whole plant is poisonous.

2.2.1.8短柱络石trachelospermum brevistylum handel-mazzetti

木质藤本植物,长5米以上,无毛。分枝具皮孔。叶柄5-8毫米;叶片狭椭圆形,5-10 x 1.2-3厘米,基部钝,先端渐尖或尾状尖;侧脉10-14 对。聚伞花序顶生或腋生;花序梗1-2 厘米,花梗5-7毫米,萼片狭椭圆形,1-2毫米,无毛,先端锐尖,稍开展。花冠白色,成管状约毫米,具糙伏毛具柔毛在里面;斜倒卵形的裂片,雄蕊6-7毫米内藏,着生于花冠筒基部;花盘矩形,5浅裂,离生。子房无毛,蓇葖果线形,分叉,1-24厘米x 3-5毫米;种子长圆形,1-3厘米,种缨约3厘米。花期 4-7月,果期8-12月。

lianas woody, to 5 m, glabrous. branches lenticellate. petiole 5-8 mm; leaf blade narrowly elliptic, 5-10 x 1.2-3 cm, base obtuse, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate; lateral veins 10-14 pairs. cymes terminal and axillary; peduncle 1-2 cm. pedicel 5-7 mm. sepals narrowly elliptic, 1-2 mm, glabrous, apex acute, slightly spreading. corolla white, tube ca. 4.5 mm, strigose-pilose inside; lobes obliquely obovate, 6-7 mm. stamens included, inserted near base of corolla tube; disc rectangular, 5-lobed, free. ovary glabrous. follicles linear, divergent, 11-24 cm x 3-5 mm. seeds oblong, 1-3 cm, coma ca. 3 cm. fl. apr-jul, fr.aug-dec.

疏林,通常乔木上攀援; 600-1100米安徽,福建,广东,广西,贵州,湖南,西藏,四川。

open forests, often climbing on trees; 600-1100 m. anhui, fujian, guangdong, guangxi, guizhou, hunan, sichuan, xizang.