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热带雨林漂流记(四)

来源:中国乐业-凤山世界地质公园 发布时间:2017-11-14

2.2.1.9肥牛树cephalomappa sinensis (chun et how )kosterm

乔木,高达25米。小枝幼时被柔毛,后脱落。托叶披针形,1-2毫米;叶柄3-5毫米,具短柔毛;叶片椭圆形的或长圆状倒卵形,6-15×3-9厘米,革质,基部宽楔形,具2小腺体,边缘残波状或稀疏有细锯齿,略带紫色,先端渐尖;侧脉5-6 对。花序不分枝的或具12个短分枝,1.5-2.5厘米;花序梗短,短柔毛,具1-3雌花和1-39-13朵雄花团伞花序。雄花近无柄;萼裂片34,长约3.5毫米,无毛;雄蕊34(8);花丝长约3毫米,基部合生;退化雌蕊柱状,2裂。雌花:花萼深5裂,长约2.5毫米;子房球状,粗糙;花柱基部合生的,上半部分平展的,2裂。果梗2-3毫米;蒴果3室,直径约1.5厘米,密被棱柱状的粗糙刺。近球形的种子,直径约8毫米, 带褐色的大理石纹。花期3-4月,果期5-7月。

trees, to 25 m tall. branchlets pubescent when young, glabrescent. stipules lanceolate, 1-2 mm; petiole 3-5 mm, pubescent; leaf blade elliptic or oblong-obovate, 6-15 × 3-9 cm, leathery, base broadly cuneate, with 2 small glands, margin repand or remotely serrulate, purplish, apex acuminate; lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs. inflorescences unbranched or with 1 or 2 short branches, 1.5-2.5cm; peduncle short, pubescent, with 1-3 female flowers and 1-3 9-13-flowered male glomerules. male flowers subsessile; calyx lobes 3 or 4, ca. 3.5 mm, glabrous; stamens (3or)4(or8); filaments ca. 3 mm, base connate; pistillode columnar, 2-lobed. female flowers: calyx deeply 5-lobed, ca. 2.5 mm; ovary globose, muricate; styles basally connate, upper part spreading, 2-lobed. fruiting pedicel 2-3 mm; capsule 3-locular, ca. 1.5 cm in diam., densely prismatic muricate-echinate. seeds subglobose, ca. 8 mm in diam., brownish marbled. fl. mar-apr, fr. may-jul.

生长在海拔100-500米石灰岩森林;广西西部和西南南部,云南东南部[越南北部].

forests on limestone; 100-500 m. w and sw guangxi, se yunnan [n vietnam].

2.2.1.10柳叶润楠(machilus salicina hance)

灌木,通常3-5米。枝条无毛,褐色。叶线状披针形,长7-12(14.5)厘米,宽约1.3-2.5(3.2)厘米,革质,上面无毛,但不甚光亮,下面暗粉绿色,无毛或嫩时有时有贴伏微柔毛,中脉上面平坦,下面明显,侧脉每边10-12条,小脉密网状,两面形成蜂巢状浅窝穴;叶柄长7-15毫米。圆花序多数生于新枝上端,少分枝,长3-8厘米,无毛或多少被绢状微柔毛;花被裂片长圆形,外轮略短小,两面被小柔毛;花丝被柔毛,第三轮雄蕊腺体圆状肾形;房近球形。果球形,直径约7-10毫米;果梗红色。

分布于广东、广西、贵州南部及云南南部;越南、老挝、柬埔寨也有。常生于低海拔地区的溪畔河边。本种适生水边,枝茂叶密,为良好的护岸防堤树种。在布柳河两岸生长非常普遍,常与水竹蒲桃、四籽柳组成河岸边优势群落。建议用作乐业县城河渠岸边绿化树种。

2.2.1.11水竹蒲桃syzygium fluviatile (hemsley) merrill & l. m. perry  shui zhu pu tao

常绿灌木,高1-3米。小枝干燥时褐色,圆柱状。叶柄长约2毫米;叶片线状披针形,3-8×0.7-1.4厘米,革质,背面淡黄棕色干燥时,干燥时正面暗褐色而没有光泽,背面具许多小的举起的腺,正面有许多凹陷的腺体,次脉多数,相隔的1.5-2毫米,与中脉成约40°的角,背面稍突起,正面明显,边脉距边缘约0.3毫米,基部逐渐狭窄,先端钝到稍圆形。花序腋生,聚伞花序,1-2 厘米。花芽倒卵球形的,长约4毫米。托杯倒圆锥形,长约3.5毫米。萼裂片4,非常短的的。花瓣白色或紫色,离生,圆形,长约4毫米。雄蕊4-5毫米。花柱与雄蕊等长。果成熟时黑色,球状,直径6-7毫米。花期4 -7月,果期9 -12月。

shrubs, 1-3 m tall. branchlets brown when dry, terete. petiole ca. 2 mm; leaf blade linear-lanceolate, 3-8 × 0.7-1.4 cm, leathery, abaxially yellowish brown when dry, adaxially dark brown and not glossy when dry, abaxially with numerous small raised glands, adaxially with numerous impressed glands, secondary veins numerous, 1.5-2 mm apart, at an angle of ca. 40° from midvein, abaxially slightly raised, and adaxially inconspicuous, intramarginal veins ca. 0.3 mm from margin, base gradually narrowed, apex obtuse to slightly rounded. inflorescences axillary, cymes, 1-2 cm. flower buds obovoid, ca. 4 mm. hypanthium obconic, ca. 3.5 mm. calyx lobes 4, very short. petals white or purple, distinct, rounded, ca. 4 mm. stamens 4-5 mm. style as long as stamens. fruit black when ripe, globose, 6-7 mm in diam. fl. apr-jul, fr. sep-dec.

       在森林的溪边;100-1000米。广西,贵州,海南。  

    streamsides in forests; 100-1000 m. guangxi, guizhou, hainan.

2.2.1.12棕竹rhapis excelsa  (thb.)henry ex rehd.

丛生灌木,茎高3-6米;有节;直径2-3厘米。杆被褐色纤维质叶柄鞘包围,叶掌状深裂同适基部,叶裂片4-10;叶柄细长,横切面椭圆开。花淡黄色,肉穗花序长达30厘米,多分枝;佛苞2-3枚;雌雄异株;雄花小,无梗;雌花较大。浆果球形,直径8-10毫米,宿存花冠管不变成实心柱状体。花期4-5月,果期11-3月。

喜生于海拔400-900米山地疏林中。分布于我国东南至西南部,栽培用观赏;根叶药用。

大石围天坑、布柳河谷等原始森林中生长繁茂,高达6米以上,是该种的重要种源保存基地。

2.2.1.14角花崖爬藤tetrastigma ceratopetalum c. y. wu        jiao hua ya pa teng

角花崖爬藤,俗称扁藤,扁担藤,为大型木质藤本植物,坚固。小枝圆柱状,具瘤,无毛,老枝黑褐色,扁平;卷须不分枝 叶鸟足状具5小叶; 叶柄3-7.5厘米;中心的小叶柄0.5-1.5厘米,侧生小叶总柄0.5-1.8厘米,侧小叶柄短或侧生小叶无梗,无毛;小叶倒卵状椭圆形的或倒卵状披针形, 5-12 × 2.5-5厘米,无毛,侧脉5-8对,细脉不明显背面,凸起,基部楔形,侧生小叶基部不对称,复合二歧聚伞花序顶生,腋生,或假顶生,花序具节和苞片;花序梗1-6厘米,无毛。花梗2-4毫米,无毛。瓶形的芽,1.5-2毫米,先端近截形。花萼杯状,无毛,边缘波状。花瓣椭圆形,1.3-1.5毫米,先端具小角状突起。花丝丝状,约1毫米;花药黄,卵球形的椭圆形,约 0.9 × 0.7mm,明显4裂,花盘在雌花内不明显环状。子房卵球形锥状,下半部分子房贴生花盘;花柱短,柱头4裂。浆果紫黑色,卵球形,直径1-2厘米,23种子。种子倒卵球状三角形,基部尖锐,先端圆形或微凹。花期 4-5月,果期9-12月。

lianas, robust, woody. branchlets terete, tuberculate, glabrous; tendrils unbranched. leaves pedately 5-foliolate; petiole 3-7.5 cm; central petiolule 0.5-1.5 cm, petiolules of lateral leaflet complex 0.5-1.8 cm, lateral petiolules short or lateral leaflets sessile, glabrous; leaflets obovate-elliptic or obovate-lanceolate, 5-12 × 2.5-5 cm, glabrous, lateral veins 5-8 pairs, veinlets inconspicuous abaxially, raised adaxially, base cuneate, base of lateral leaflets asymmetric, margin 4-9-toothed on each side, teeth sharp, apex acute or mucronate. compound dichasium terminal, axillary, or pseudoterminal, axillary inflorescences with nodes and bracts; peduncle 1-6 cm, glabrous. pedicel 2-4 mm, glabrous. buds bottle-shaped, 1.5-2 mm, apex subtruncate. calyx cupular, glabrous, margin undulate. petals elliptic, 1.3-1.5 mm, apex corniculate, glabrous. filaments filiform, ca. 1 mm; anthers yellow, ovoid-elliptic, ca. 0.9 × 0.7 mm. disk conspicuous, 4-lobed, inconspicuous and annular in female flowers. ovary ovoid-coniform, lower part of ovary adnate to disk; style short; stigma 4-divided. berry purple-black, ovoid, 1-2 cm in diam., 2- or 3-seeded. seeds obovoid-triangular, base sharp, apex rounded or retuse. fl. apr-may, fr. sep-dec.

       混交林,在山腰上的岩石灌丛;1200-1800米。广西,贵州,云南。

mixed forests, rocky shrublands on hillsides; 400-1800 m. guangxi, guizhou, yunnan.

       

2.2.1.15红绒毛羊蹄甲bauhinia aurea levl.

藤本;小枝密被红棕色绒毛。叶近圆形,长7-16厘米,宽6-18厘米,先端二裂至叶片的1/3-1/2;裂片卵状三角形,渐尖或急尖而钝,上面沿脉有毛,下面密被红棕色绒毛,脉9-11条;叶柄长约6-7厘米,密被毛。伞房花序顶生;花梗长约4-5厘米,密被红棕色绒毛;花萼筒状,筒部长约1厘米,5枚披针形裂片较筒稍长,密被红棕色绒毛;花冠白色,花瓣背面密被绒毛;房有短柄,密被红棕色长柔毛。荚果条形,木质,扁,密被红棕色绒毛,长16-21厘米,宽4-5厘米,开裂,有种子2-8粒。

分布于广西、四川南部、贵州、云南。生于灌丛中或木林中。

2.2.1.16 枫杨pterocarya stenoptera  c. de candolle              feng yang

枫杨,别名麻柳、蜈蚣柳、鬼柳、枫柳、水柳等。布柳中最常见的一种河岸树。乔木30米。偶数羽状复叶,很少奇数羽状复叶,8-16(-25)厘米;叶柄2-6.5厘米,疏生短柔毛;轴常有翅或者有时只成脊状,疏生短柔毛到被绒毛上;小叶(6-)11-21(-25),无梗,长椭圆形到椭圆形披针形, 8-12 ×2-3厘米,背面稍具短柔毛,基部偏斜,楔形或宽楔形,先端钝或锐尖。穗状果序20-45厘米,轴最初具短柔毛后来变得近无毛。小坚果长椭圆形,6-7毫米,稍具短柔毛到后脱落;翅线形,1.2-2.5 × 3-6 毫米。花期 4-5月,果期8-9月。 染色体2n = 32

trees to 30 m tall. leaves even-pinnate, rarely odd-pinnate, 8-16(-25) cm; petiole 2-6.5 cm, sparsely pubescent; rachis often winged or sometimes only ridged or sulcate on some leaves, sparsely pubescent to tomentose; leaflets (6-)11-21(-25), sessile, long elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 8-12 × 2-3 cm, abaxially slightly pubescent, base oblique, cuneate or broadly cuneate, apex obtuse or acute. fruiting spike 20-45 cm, axis pubescent at first but becoming nearly glabrous. nutlets long ellipsoid, 6-7 mm, slightly pubescent to glabrescent; wings linear, 1.2-2.5 × 3-6 mm. fl. apr-may, fr. aug-sep. 2n = 32.

       山坡森林或河岸; 近海平面到海拔1500安徽福建甘肃广东广西贵州、海南、河北、河南、湖北、湖南 、江苏、江西、辽宁、陕西、山东、山西、四川、台湾、云南、浙江[日本,朝鲜]

forests on mountain slopes or riverbanks; near sea level to 1500 m. anhui, fujian, gansu, guangdong, guangxi, guizhou, hainan, hebei, henan, hubei, hunan, jiangsu, jiangxi, liaoning, shaanxi, shandong, shanxi, sichuan, taiwan, yunnan, zhejiang [japan, korea].

      作为一绿荫树广泛栽培于中国大部分地区widely cultivated as a shade tree.

      叶含维生素(vitamin)c,鞣质;叶有毒含水杨酸、内酯、酚性成分;种子含脂肪油。

全株药用。树皮:辛苦,温,有小毒祛风止痛,杀虫,敛疮。叶:苦,温有毒祛风止痛,杀虫止痒,解毒敛疮

主治用法树皮:风湿麻木,寒湿骨痛,齿痛,头颅伤痛,痔疮,疥癣,烫伤,溃疡日久不敛。叶:慢性支气管炎,关节疼痛,癰疽肿疖,疥癣风痒,皮炎湿疹,烫火伤。树皮:外用:适量,煎水含漱或熏洗,或乙醇浸搽。有毒,不宜内服。叶:外用:适量,煎水洗,酒精浸搽或捣敷。